These are the most common diseases which lead to kidney transplant:
- Diabetes mellitus
- High blood pressure
- Polycystic kidney disease
- Severe defects of the urinary tract
It is a chronic disease which will stay for a life time of the patient. It effects the body’s ability to extract and utilise the energy which is present in the food that we intake. Usually, our body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates into a unique sugar called glucose which further fuels the cells in our body. However, the cells in our body need insulin in order to utilise this glucose and use it as energy. When a person’s body is suffering from diabetes mellitus, either it does not produce enough insulin or it cannot utilise the insulin which has been produced and in some cases it can neither produce nor utilise the insulin. When the cells cannot take the glucose, it kind of builds up in the blood and the presence of this excess glucose in our blood will damage the blood vessels in the heart, eyes, nervous system along with the kidney.
There are three types of diabetes:
- TYPE 1 DIABETES
- TYPE 2 DIABETES
- GESTATIONAL DIABETES
Glomeruli are the structures in kidneys which are made up of tiny blood vessels. They help in filtering the blood and remove excess fluids and when the glomeruli are damaged, the kidney stops working and you can even go into kidney failure. This scenario is known as glomerulonephritis. It can be of two types i.e Acute (sudden) or Chronic (long term). It is also referred to as Nephritis.
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE:
Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the body organs. When the pressure in the arteries increases, the immediate effect is upon organs like heart and kidney. When the pressure is 120/80, it is known as a normal blood pressure and when it is above these numbers it is high blood pressure and when it is lower than these numbers it is low blood pressure. For every three individuals, one is a victim of blood pressure related disease.
POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE:
Polycystic kidney disease is the case when cysts filled with fluids are formed on the kidney. It is generally hereditary in nature, however, it can also occur in your case if you are suffering from any other severe kidney disease. It is non-curable but treatments are available for reducing the symptoms of the PKD. You cannot identify the disease beforehand as the symptoms are usually neglected and the cysts grow only 0.5 inches long. Nevertheless, it is very dangerous as it will cause kidney failure. There are three types of PKD
- Autosomal Dominant PKD.
- Autosomal Recessive PKD.
- Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease.
SEVERE DEFECTS OF THE URINARY TRACT:
When a child is born with defects in the urinary tract, it will have its side effects on the kidney functions. It is a hereditary condition which is passed on from a parent who either has the defect themselves or carries the genes. It is diagnosed during the preliminary check-ups done in the nursery which are done to identify any chronic yet curable diseases. They can also be diagnosed before birth during the ultra sound. Different types of urinary tract defects are
- Ambiguous genitals.
- Bladder exstrophy and epispadias.
- Hydro nephrosis.
- Kidney dysplasia.
- Polycystic kidney disease.
- Renal agenesis.