Now a days Obesity and overweight have become a global outbreak. Its prevalence is very high in urban areas, more among the non-poor households in India. Obesity and overweight increases the possibility of knee-replacement surgery in India. In this article will discuss about osteoarthritis, obesity and the problems associated with it knee in an obese population.
The factors leading to overweight and obesity are-
- Excessive intake of energy-dense food.
- Sedentary lifestyle. And,
- Lack of physical activity.
Obesity and Overweight
Obesity is defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 30 kg/m2 that may impair a person’s health. A BMI between 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2 is defined overweight.
It has been a subject for debate. Few say that obesity is caused by overeating, and an intake of net positive calorific leads to weight gain. How diet affects body weight cannot be controlled and therefore more of the evidence is backward. Although there is a need for well controlled studies to guide future management of obesity. Procedures of knee-replacement are more difficult and time consuming in people who are overweight because they have excess of fatty tissue surrounding their joints. Other than knee problems obesity and overweight also leads to diabetes, ischaemic heart disease burden and cancer burdens . In the age group of 18 to 59 years, almost 52% went for total knee-replacement (TKR). Men and women from all age groups are affected. Compared to the normal patients, the obese patients are at an increased increased risk of knee-replacement surgery. The younger patients are also more effected by it. Knee-replacement surgery can be reduced by 31% if the people adopt weight reduction strategies.
OA may be defined as a condition of progressive loss of articular cartilage within a joint resulting in pain. It can be of two types. Primary OA have a genetic basis but no other underlying pre-determinants. Secondary OA may develop as a consequence of multiple causes. Its basically common between siblings and especially identical twins . The knee joint is commonly affected by OA. Obesity is a recognised risk factor for developing knee OA. In the development of osteoarthritis nutrition has no direct role to play. More intake of proteins and calcium helps strengthen the bones which in turn prevents the progression of arthritis and the pain. If you are having issues related to uric acid then it needs to be controlled by going for an appropriate diet because if untreated it can increase arthritis. If in childhood poor nutrition is provided it can lead to bowing of the legs which in turn will cause malalignment and then osteoarthritis.
The body weight of a person is focused on the knee joints. The end of bones that form a knee are covered with a cartilage that is responsible for smooth movement. More pressure to the cartilage, leads to its early wear. When this condition pops up, it leads to osteoarthritis. Severe osteoarthritis (OA) leads to knee-repalcement surgery. The surgery involves replacement of knee joints with an aritifical material. The state-of-the-art surgical technique improves the accuracy of knee replacement surgery from 80% to 99.9%. It ensures proper placement of the implant and alignment of the artificial knee.
So here to conclude I would like to say that Obesity is an increasing worldwide problem. Proper measures should be taken to overcome it. Especially the young generation should take a healthy diet and pursue a healthy lifestyle to avoid overweight and obesity. Overall evidence suggests obese patients are at increased risk of premature joint failure.