During past years there has been buzz created about diabetes and losing vision. It is not that easy to live with low or no vision. Getting diagnosed with it or aging eye disease, is difficult to cope up with; question comes to one mind is, how will they regain their independence if their sight starts fading? You have to become dependent on other people for it. There are many reasons for losing vision, but many people are unaware about the vision loss caused by diabetes. People suffering from high diabetes are at greater risk of developing blindness, whereas people without diabetes do not lose their vision without any major injury, it is just a minor disorder.
But now, you need not to worry more, with regular checkups; you can easily cope up with it. And if there are major problem such as disorder caused by diabetes, then there are treatment that can work well if taken on time. Well coming back to the topic, lets discuss about Diabetic eye diseases.
WHAT IS DIABETIC EYE DISEASE?
It is a group of eye disease condition that affects people suffering from diabetes. There are two types of Diabetic eye disease which are as follows:-
1. Diabetic retinopathy –it mainly affects the blood vessel in the most sensitive tissue i.e. the retina
- Among the people of diabetes it is the most common cause leading to vision impartment and blindness among working age groups
2. Diabetic macular edema (DME) –DME is the term of diabetes retinopathy, it is a disorder in which the area of the retina gets swelled, and the swelled area is called as macula
3. Diabetes eye disease includes cataract as well as glaucoma. Cataract includes clouding of eye lenses. All the adults suffering from diabetes likely to develop cataract in their early ages
4. Glaucoma is a group of diseases that affects and damages the optic nerve of the eye. Many types of glaucoma are associated mainly with elevated pressure in the eye. In adults the risk of getting affected with glaucoma double, if the person is suffering from diabetes
WHAT CAUSES IT?
Basically high blood sugar is diabetes that mainly affects the damage to the tiny blood vessels in retina that leads to diabetic retinoplasty. The light gets detected by retina, and converts it to the signal that has been sent through optic nerve to the brain. The fluid in the retina gets leaked from blood vessel; as a result there are chances of getting haemorrhage, or distorting vision. Whereas, in advance stages, new abnormal vessel increases on the surface of retina, that may eventually lead to loss of cell in retina
Diabetic retinopathy may progress in three main stages:
- Mild nonproliferative retinopathy – At the early stage of disease, in the small areas of retinas tiny blood vessel there is a swelling like balloon, called microaneurysms, that mainly occurs at the early phase of disease. These microaneurysms leaks fluid in the retina
- Moderate nonproliferative retinopathy – As the disease progresses to the above stage, the blood vessels get nourished and the retina may get swell and distort. It may also lose its ability to transport the blood. Both conditions has its own characteristic changes in the appearance of the retina that contributes to DME
- Severe nonproliferative retinopathy – Many more blood vessels are blocked, except the supply of blood to the areas of retina. These areas secrete the growth factors that commands the retina to grow new blood vessels
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY AND DME?
In its early stages there are usually no symptoms. Moreover, this disease mainly progress and go un noticed until and unless it affects the vision. Appearance of “floating spots” is always caused by the blood from abnormal retinal blood vessel. These spots sometimes gets cleared by its own without any treatment followed by regular bleeding, risk of losing permanent vision. Id DME occurs, it can cause vision blur.
DETECTION OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY AND DME
Diabetic retinopathy and DME are diagnosed at the time of comprehensive dilated eye exam which includes:
- Tonometry : this is the test that detects pressure inside the eye
- Pupil dilation : Drops are placed on the surface of eye, that helps the pupil to get widen and thus it allows the physician to examine the retina and optic nerve.
- Optical coherence tomography (OCT): This technique is same as ultrasound but mainly uses light waves in place of sound waves to collect the images of various tissues inside the body. OCT provides detailed images of tissues that get penetrated by light, such as the eye.
If you notice any kind of change in your vision, there are chances that your retina may get damage very badly. Most people with nonproliferative retinopathy mostly have no symptoms. Even along with it people complaint of having no symptoms, that can be the dangerous form because, then it gets too late to treat them. Only for this reason you should examine your eyes with an eye care professional.