It is a branch of surgery which deals with musculoskeletal system. It performed by an orthopedic surgeon who is well trained to deal with problems related to joints, bones, nerves and ligaments of the human body.
The word Orthopedics came from Greek words known as Ortho which means straight and pedic which means child, previously orthopedics was only concerned with children with spine and limb deformities, however now it takes care of all ages as problems related to the bones are very common today and anyone can face problem related to bones and joints, nerves etc.
This problem may occur at the time of birth due to some injury or can be a result of aging. These problems may be critical and can persist for long time. To obtain a proper treatment choosing an orthopedist is a very important step, patients should always go for a certified doctor in order to get best treatment.
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Musculoskeletal system involves
- Diagnosing your injury
- Treating with exercise, medications, surgery etc.
- Restoring movement by recommending exercises or physical therapy.
- Preventing injury with proper treatment plans.
Orthopedic surgeons normally deal with musculoskeletal system, however many orthopedists specialize in areas such as spine, ankle, hip or knee.
Orthopedists do range of treatments which can cover anything from traction to amputation. They also treat problems of broken bones, strains and sprains and dislocations. Orthopedic surgeons also carry out procedure such as arthroscopic surgery, bone grafting, knee cap removal, fracture repair, arthroplasty etc.
Orthopedic surgery can be performed under any of the local, general or regional anesthesia. The work of an orthopedist surgeon mostly involves adding foreign material in the body which may include tongs, screws, pins, wires which would help to hold damaged bones in their proper alignment. There have been great improvements in development of artificial limbs and joints.
Common orthopedic surgery includes:
- Fusion Here in this procedure bones are fused together into a single solid bone.
- Internal fixation: It is a method where metal plates, screws or pins are used in order to hold the broken pieces of bone
- Osteotomy: Here the deformity in the bone is corrected by cutting and then it is repositioned
- Soft tissue repair: Here the soft tissues such as torn tendons or ligaments are mended.
There may be different patients with different orthopedic problems which may require different treatment, but there are some procedures that are very common
Top 4 most common orthopedic surgeries are as follows:
- Total shoulder Replacement: Though this procedure sounds scary, it helps in reducing the pain and patients feel better overtime. Here the damaged parts of the bone and cartilage are replaced with a metal or plastic implant. It helps to improve the motion at the shoulder joint.
- Spine Surgery :Many problems can lead to spine surgery; many people go for spine surgery due to back pain that is un bearable that makes it difficult for them even to carry out day to day life. Spine surgery will reduce the pain and helps to have better physical fitness and increased physical activity and productivity. Spinal fusion is the most common type of back surgery. In this procedure the surgeon joins the spinal bones which are known as vertebrae. It restricts the motion between the bones of the spine thereby limits the stretching of the nerves.
- Total Joint Replacement: Many a times people go for Total joint replacement if they are suffering from severe arthritis, as this would relieve them from pain and increases the range of motion. The damaged parts of the joints are evaluated by the surgeons during this procedure and then it is replaced with metal and plastic surfaces which would help to restore the knee movement.
- Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstructionACL is one of the major stabilizing ligament of the knee. When the ligament gets ruptured it is reconstructed by the orthopedic surgeons, the torn ligament will be removed using your own tissue to make a new ACL. Then with the help of screws and other devices the surgeon will attach the new ligament to the bone to hold it in place.
It takes a long time to recover from orthopedic injuries, the doctor along with physical therapist will make sure that the patient is receiving proper treatment which will help to enhance the range of motion and reduce pain.
What are the risks involved in orthopedic surgery?
As other surgeries there is always a risk of excessive bleeding, allergic reaction, infection etc. The main risk involved in orthopedic surgery is inflammation at the site where implants are placed; it may also cause damage to the nerves and spinal cord
Every surgery involves risk, but that doesn’t mean that every person going through orthopedic surgery will face this problem. However the recovery depends on various factors such as age and health of the patient. Many people have successful orthopedic surgery which has helped them to restore lost function and recover from injuries.